Note: These principles and the notion of an R&D Agreement or Convention were proposed by the WHO Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development (CEWG) and are further supported by the recent report by the UN High Level Panel on Access to Medicines (UNHLP). Much of the language describing specific practices that would enable these principles to be attained is also adopted word by word from the CEWG and the UNHLP reports. WHO Member States already agreed that R&D should abide by these principles (in Paragraph 6 of the WHA69/B/CONF./6 paper) at the 69th World Health Assembly. However, after years of discussions, no steps have been taken by the WHO or its Member States to ensure this is implemented through a legally-binding R&D Agreement or Convention. Whereas trade agreements are popular, conventions or agreements in relation to health are scarce: the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control is the only such example. The World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is the only current global agreement regulating R&D, and it does so from a trade perspective rather than from a health perspective.